But the Africans went out on fair play rules as they have received more yellow cards than Japan in the tournament.
Japan and Senegal head the group on four points each with Colombia one behind after rebounding with a 3-0 thumping of the now-eliminated Poland in Kazan on Sunday.
Colombia, who overcame the premature exit of injured James Rodriguez, will now play Group G's second-placed side - either England or Belgium - in Moscow on Tuesday, with Japan facing the winners of that group in Rostov-on-Don a day earlier.
Jose Pekerman has refused to entertain the prospect of seeing Colombia's stuttering World Cup campaign end with their final Group H clash against Senegal on Thursday.
Senegal were the last remaining African side in the competition and their elimination means that there will be no African team in the second round of a World Cup for the first time since 1982.
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The South Americans had the first shot on target after Juan Quintero's free-kick earned them a corner.
Sanchez thwarted Senegal's star man again on 26 minutes after Mane had skilfully turned away from Mina.
Upon learning of the goal in Volgograd, Colombia adopted a more defensive approach and were content to try to pinch a goal from a set piece, with Radamel Falcao squandering a decent chance on 66 minutes when he headed wide after running across his marker.
Sarr snatched at another chance on 80 minutes when his back-post volley lacked conviction, after he had been picked out by Mane's cross, and Senegal did not have another opportunity to rescue their tournament.
But the decision was overturned after VAR showed Sanchez won the ball in the box.
Colombia's football association has said the players who faced Poland focused on "regenerative" work on Monday.